I'm experiencing similar issue as this user as SU:
Many (most) of my icons in the start menu display the standard empty file icon:
When I click on All Apps there are empty file icons like that all over the place.
My Windows 10 installation is an update over Windows 8.
The SketchUp icon you see is from an application I installed after updating to Windows 10.
I know about Start10 - I used to use Start8 - however, I'm still trying out the native start menu and I'm trying to figure out what causes this. I updated on an old laptop of mine as well, dual boot - it had Win7 and Win8 - both are not Win10 and all the icons there are fine.
I have IconPackage installed and repairing the icon cache has not worked.
Anyone else experienced this?